Bunyavirus belongs to the family “Bunyaviridae” of usually spherical or pleomorphic single-stranded RNA viruses usually transmitted by the bite of an arthropod (like mosquitoes) or in the bodily secretions of rodents and including the hantaviruses and the causative agents of Rift valley fever, sandfly fever.
SOURCE OF INFECTION: Infected mosquitoes, ticks or mammals.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS: Undifferentiated fevers, fever and rash, hemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, encephalitis, optic retinitis, teratogenesis.
PATHOLOGY : Dependent on etiologic agent, but rather typical of infection i.e. encephalitis ,fever, rash etc.
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS : Virus isolation and serologic tests or antibody (IgM antibody capture ELISA, neutralization).
EPIDEMIOLOGY : Diseases occur when humans or animals are in contact with infected vertebrates or wh fed on by infected arthropods in specific geographic areas.
TREATMENT : Symtomatic.
PREVENION AND CONTROL: Prevention of contact (removal from area, insecticides, screening, rodent-proofing) between susceptible human or animal and source of vaccination.