Golkonda was originally known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas along the lines of Kondapli Fort as part of their western defense. The city and fort were built on a granite hill that is 120 meters (390 feet) high and is surrounded by large-scale battles. The fort was rebuilt and fortified by Queen Rudrama Devi and her successor Pratap Praudra. The fort later came under the control of Kama Nyakas, who defeated the Tughlaq army occupying Warangal.
Under the Bahmani Empire, Golkonda gradually gained popularity. Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk (1487-15153), sent by the Bahmanis as a governor in Golkonda, established the city as the seat of his government around 1501. During this period, Bahmani rule gradually weakened, and Sultan Qali became a regular force. In 1538, Azad established the Qutb Shahi dynasty at Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the earthen fortress was expanded into its present structure by the first three Polar Sultans, covering a distance of about 5 km (3.1 miles) around a huge granite fort. When the capital moved to Hyderabad, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort, with a 7 km (4.3 mi) outer wall encircling the city.
Golkonda had a strong cotton industry during the early seventeenth century. Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and export consumption. High quality plain or patterned fabric was made from muslin and calico. Plain fabric was available in white or brown, bleach or color type. The cloth was exported to Persia and European countries. The patterned cloth was made of prints with indigo for blue, tea root for red prints and vegetable yellow. Exports of patterned fabrics were mainly to Java, Sumatra and other eastern countries.
The fort came to an end after an eight-month siege by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb