Kaloji Narayana Rao (9 September 1914 – 13 November 2002) was an Indian poet, freedom fighter, anti-fascist and political activist of Telangana. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1992. The Telangana government honored Kaloji's birthday as Telangana Language Day.
Kaloji completed his primary education in Madikonda and higher education in Warangal and Hyderabad.
During his student days and later, he was deeply influenced by and participated in popular movements of the time. like the Arya Samaj Movement, especially in the domain of civil rights. He has also involved in Andhra Maha Sabha activities since its formation in 1934, and part of the Satyagraha, Osmania University Vandemataram, State Congress, Andhra Mahasabha (Telangana) and Library movements. Considered by many to be a freedom fighter, he was part of the freedom movement of Hyderabad State and underwent imprisonment under the Nizam.
is commitment to human rights made him an active member of the Tarkunde Committee. Although opposed to power and the trapping of office Kaloji looked upon elections as a democratic exercise. He contested thrice and got elected once as a member of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council. His most significant dispute was against Jalagam Vengal Rao, then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, in 1977.
In September 2014, the Government of Telangana in his honour, named the Medical University, Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences after him.
Kaloji wrote poetry in Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, and Marathi languages. In 1992, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Kakatiya University.