Indian Freedom Fighters - Nana Sahib(Balaji Baji Rao)
September 08, 2020, 09:59 AM IST
Nana Sahib(Balaji Baji Rao):
Nana Saheb (19 May 1824 – 1859), born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of the Maratha empire, aristocrat and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore (Kanpur) during the 1857 uprising. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Saheb believed that he was entitled to a pension from the East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky.
Childhood & Early Life:
Nana was born Nana Govind Dhondu Pant, on May 19, 1824, in Venu, Maharashtra, to Narayan Bhat, a well-educated Deccani Brahmin, and his wife, Ganga Bai, who was the sister-in-law of the ''Peshwa.''The 'East India Company' defeated the Maratha in the Third Maratha War and exiled the 12th & the last ''Peshwa'' (ruler) Baji Rao II to Bithoor, near Cawnpore (now Kanpur) in Uttar Pradesh, where he managed a large establishment. Nana's father was made a court official in Bithoor, while Rao II, who had no son, adopted Nana and his younger brother in 1827.Nana had grown up with Azimullah Khan, Tatya Tope, and Manikarnika Tambe. Manikarnika is famously known as Rani Lakshmibai. Khan later became Nana's “dewan".
After death of Baji Rao, Chattrapati Shahu appointed Baji Rao's 19 years old son, Balaji Baji Rao, as Peshwa. Balaji Baji Rao was called by the name of "Nana" ,thus later "Nanasaheb". After becoming peshwa, Balaji Baji Rao had to deal with discontent from neighbors and maratha chieftains such as Tulaji, son of Kanhoji Angre and Raghoji Bhosale. Raghoji's resentment stemmed from his desire to become Peshwa. He was husband of sister of Shahu's wife. Hyderabad Nizam and his successors were also not ready to fulfil their treaty obligations made to Baji Rao. In Karnataka, muslims began to challenge Maratha sovereignty; Rajput rulers were also dissatisfied with Marathas. Gaikwad of Vadodadra in Gujrat was also unhappy with Peshwa. There were internal disputes between Maratha generals, Scindia and Holkar. The financial condition of the Marathas was also deplorable.
The state of royal treasury was not good due to expeditions of his late father Peshwa Baji Rao. Baji Rao himself left a loan of 14 lakhs rupees. Nana Saheb found the solution of it in Karnataka. He appointed his officer Murarirao Ghorpade to take money from Trichnapalli and Arkat. Then he took a loan from Mahadji Purandare and returned the money of Babuji Nayak. To improve the financial situation, Peshwa asked for right to taxation from all provinces taken from Portuguese from Chattrapati Shahu and he was granted that right which included Basin and south of Narmada River region except Gujarat.
Problem of the Angre brothers:
Struggle for succession started in Angre family in 1739 AD, after death of Sambhaji Angre. Peshwa favoured Manaji Angre, who was against Tulaji Angre. To establish the sovereignty of Manaji, Peshwa took naval help from British and ended the reign of Tulaji. Manaji remained faithful towards Peshwa. For this favour, Manaji had to give up full portion of Bankot to the British and navy power of Marathas was also diminished.
Getting of Malwa:
In 1738 AD, according to treaty of Durai, Sarai Nizam, had given the provinces of Malwa to Baji Rao. But Mughal emperor did not confirm it till. So Balaji entered in Malwa with a strong army and confiscated all land between the Narmada and Mandala. Being afraid of this, Mughal emperor conceded the province of Malwa to Peshwa in 1741 A.D. In return, the Peshwa promised to give 500 soldiers permanently to the emperor and send 4,000 soldiers, when needed. This was the start of direct involvement of Marathas in Mughals politics that later proved destructive.
Life as Peshwa:
After the death of Peshwa Baji Rao I, Chhatrapati Shahu now appointed the deceased’s eldest son Balaji Bajirao as Peshwa on 4 July 1740.Balaji Bajirao Peshwa had received good training in war and diplomacy under his father but he was not endowed with his father’s dash and military genius. He was a man of sweet and conciliatory temper.
Conquests under Nanasaheb Peshwa:
On his appointment, he planned an expedition to Northern India in order to secure the formal cession of Malwa which had been promised to his father by Nizam-ul-Mulk.Accompanied by his uncle Chimaji Appa he left for Malwa, but Chimaji had to return from the way on account of ill-health and died at Poona on 27 December 1740. Chimnaji was a notable soldier and an administrator of repute. Not a man of great personal ambition, he loyally served his brother and gave him the credit for his achievements. His son Sadashivrao Bhau, popularly known as Bhau Saheb, was destined to rise to fame and to a tragic end.
The Peshwa after due mourning for his deceased uncle resumed his journey and reached Dholpur, where he held a conference with Jai Singh of Jaipur in the last week of May 1741. It resulted in an agreement to the effect
1.That the Peshwa and Jai Singh should act in complete friendship and help each other.
2.That the Marathas should be strictly loyal to the Mughal emperors.
3.That the governorship of Malwa should be secured for the Peshwa within six months.
After this diplomatic success Balaji Bajirao returned to Poona on 17 July. Jai Singh now persuaded the emperor to issue a ‘farman’ appointing the crown prince Ahmad as Subedar of Malwa and Peshwa Balaji Rao, as his deputy. Balaji Rao thus became the master of Malwa in name as well as in fact. The province had been in Maratha possession since November 1738.
The formal grant of 14 July 1741 legalized the Maratha conquest of Malwa. The terms of the grant of Malwa were:
1.The Marathas should not encroach on any other imperial territory.
2.The Peshwa should station at Delhi 500 Maratha horse for imperial service.
3.That at the time of necessity 4,000 more Maratha troops should be provided at the expense of the emperor.
4.That the Peshwa should respect the jagirs in Malwa granted by the emperor to individuals and religious institutions before 1741 and that he should not enhance the taxes on the riots.
Karnataka was a great attraction for Balaji Baji Rao. The reason was that Shahu had given the work of Karnataka to Maratha Sardar Raghuji Bhonsle who was rival of Balaji. Raghuji attacked on Karnataka in 1739 A.D. and got glorious successes. He defeated Nawab Dostali in Karnataka and killed him and imprisoned his son-in-law, Chanda Saheb, and brought him Satara. By this the prestige of Raghuji Bhonsle increased much. Balaji Baji Rao becomes eager to establish his sovereignty in Karnataka.
In 1743 A.D., Nizam-ul-Mulk attacked on Karnataka and cancelled all the successor of the Raghuji Bhonsle. At this, in 1715 A.D., Peshwa sent Sadashivrao Bhau for Karnataka expedition. Sadashiv Bhau was the cousin of Balaji Baji Rao and was a brave warrior and general. He made the whole west Karnataka under Chhatrapati. Thus, Nana Saheb followed separate policy from his father. He wanted to control Karnataka like north.
Orissa, Bengal & Bihar:
Rahgoji Bhonsle of Nagpur was a strong Sardar. In 1742 A.D., he increased his influence in Orissa and Bengal. His representative Bhaskar Pant plundered many places in Bengal and defeated Nawab Alivardi Khan. Raghuji and Balaji Baji Rao were already rivals. When Bhaskar Pant started plundering in Bengal, Alivardi Khan requested Peshwa for help. Meanwhile, Mughal emperor also wrote Peshwa that he would prevent the activities of Raghuji in Bengal.
So Peshwa went towards Bengal with a strong army and he defeated Raghuji at many places. Raghuji kept the whole matter in front of Shahu. Sahuji talked with Peshwa and Raghuji made them friends and divided their fields. So Peshwa had to be away from Bengal.
After that, Bhaskar Pant was killed by which Raghuji became angry and he made many successful expeditions on Bengal, Bihar and Orissa between 1747 and 1751 A.D. In the end, Alivardi Khand and Raghuji had to make treaty. According to treaty, the area of Orissa was given to Marathas and Raghuji was to pay 12 lakh rupees and Chauth of Bengal and Bihar. By this treaty, the sovereignty of Marathas over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa increased.
The Battle of Panipat:
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat (Haryana State, India), about 60 miles (95.5 km) north of Delhi. The battle pitted the French-supplied artillery of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry of the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century. Marathas were defeated with heavy casualties on both sides.
Contribution to Pune city:
During his 20-year reign (1740–1761), Balaji Bajirao completely transformed Pune from a nagar (settlement) into a vast city. He established many new neighbourhoods (called peths) like Nana Peth, etc. and developed few like Shaniwar Peth, Ravivar Peth, Somwar Peth, Budhwar Peth. He built the famous Parvati temple atop a hillock that overlooks the city and built the first permanent bridge across the river Mutha. (That bridge was made of wood, so the new concrete bridge that stands at the same location today is also called Lakdi Pool or 'the wooden bridge'. He also established a reservoir at the nearby town of Katraj to provide clean running water to the city. The 250 year old system is still functioning.
His career saw some of the best and worst moments of the Maratha empire. Maratha power in India reached its peak under his reign. Balaji Bajirao, his uncle (Kaka) Chimaji Appa (younger Brother of Bajirao-I), his cousin Sadashivrao Bhau (Chimaji Appa's son), and his younger brother Raghunathrao were successful in establishing and consolidating Maratha dominance in India. By 1760 AD the borders of Maratha Empire had crossed Peshawar (presently in Pakistan. However, he is partly responsible for the defeat of the Marathas at the Battle of Panipat (1761).
Baji Rao's first wife was Kashibai, the daughter of Mahadji Krishna Joshi and Shiubai of Chas (a wealthy banking family). Their relationship was a happy one. They had three sons Balaji Baji Rao (also called Nanasaheb), Raghunath Rao (also called Ragoba) and Janardhan Rao, who died at an early age. Nanasaheb was appointed Peshwa by Shahu in 1740, succeeding his father.
Baji Rao took a second wife, Mastani, the daughter of Hindu king Chhatrasal of Bundelkhand and his Muslim wife. The marriage was political one, arranged to please Chhatrasal. Mastani had a son, Krishna Rao, in 1734. Since his mother was Muslim, the Hindu priests refused to conduct upanayana ceremony and he became known as Shamsher Bahadur. After the deaths of Baji Rao and Mastani in 1740, Kashibai raised six-year-old Shamsher Bahadur as her own. Shamsher received a portion of his father's dominion of Banda and Kalpi. In 1761, he and his army fought alongside the Peshwa in the Third Battle of Panipat between the Marathas and the Afghans. Wounded in the battle, Shamsher died several days later in Deeg.
Nanasaheb died at Parvati, Pune, on 23 June 1761.