Karnataka From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search For other uses, see Karnataka (disambiguation). Karnataka State Mysore Palace Morning.jpg 7th - 9th century Hindu and Jain temples, Pattadakal monuments Karnataka 5.jpg Brindavan Gardens.JPG Hoysala emblem.jpg Barachukki - a revelation.jpg Hampi virupaksha temple.jpg From top, left to right: Mysore Palace, Pattadakal, Brindavan Gardens, Hoysala Empire emblem, Shivanasamudra Falls and Virupaksha Temple, Hampi Official logo of Karnataka Emblem Anthem: "Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate" "(Victory To You Mother Karnataka)" Map of Karnataka Map of Karnataka Coordinates (Bangalore): 12.97°N 77.50°ECoordinates: 12.97°N 77.50°E Country India Formation 1 November 1956 (as Mysore State) Capital and largest city Bangalore (Bengaluru) Districts List[show] Government • Body Government of Karnataka • Governor Vajubhai Vala • Chief Minister H. D. Kumaraswamy (JD (S)) • Deputy Chief Minister G. Parameshwara (INC) • Legislature Bicameral • Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 12 Lok Sabha 28 Area • Total 191,791 km2 (74,051 sq mi) Area rank 6th Highest elevation 1,925 m (6,316 ft) Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft) Population (2011) • Total 61,130,704 • Rank 8th • Density 320/km2 (830/sq mi) Demonym(s) Kannadiga GDP (2018–19) • Total ₹15.88 lakh crore (US$220 billion) • Per capita ₹178,121 (US$2,500) Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST) ISO 3166 code IN-KA Vehicle registration KA Official languages Kannada HDI (2017) Increase 0.682 medium · 18th Literacy (2011) 75.36% Sex ratio (2011) 973 ♀/1000 ♂ Website www.karnataka.gov.in Symbols of Karnataka Emblem Gandaberunda Song Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate Animal Indian elephant Bird Indian Roller Flower Lotus Tree Sandalwood Karnataka (Karnāṭaka) is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru). Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also has the only 3 naturally Sanskrit-speaking districts in India. The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga , and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black", and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore (US$220 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000 (US$2,400). Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Rainfall in Karnataka 4 Sub-divisions 5 Demographics 6 Government and administration 7 Economy 8 Transport 9 Culture 10 Religion 10.1 Festivals 11 Language 12 Education 12.1 High literacy districts 12.2 High literacy taluks 13 Media 14 Sports 15 Flora and fauna 16 Tourism 17 See also 18 Notes 19 References 20 External links 20.1 Government 20.2 General information History Main articles: History of Karnataka, Political history of medieval Karnataka, and Etymology of Karnataka Photo of brown cone-topped temple ruins Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi; the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital. Sala fighting the Lion, the emblem of Hoysala Empire Brown stone statue of smiling deity sitting cross-legged under arch Statue of Ugranarasimha at Hampi, located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi. These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century. The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture. The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota. The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.