Novel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Novell. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Novel" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Literature Liji2 no bg.png Major forms Novel Poem Drama Short story Novella Genres Comedy Drama Epic Erotic Nonsense Lyric Mythopoeia Romance Satire Tragedy Tragicomedy Media Performance play Book Techniques Prose Poetry History and lists History modern Outline Glossary of terms Books Writers Literary awards poetry Discussion Criticism Theory (critical theory) Sociology Magazines Books-aj.svg aj ashton 01.svg Literature portal vte A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally written in prose form, and which is typically published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, and in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. (Since the 18th century, the term "novella", or "novelle" in German, has been used in English and other European languages to describe a long short story or a short novel.) Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji (1010) has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote (the first part of which was published in 1605), is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel (1957), suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which (as he saw it) "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are also frequently called novels, and Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." Contents 1 Defining the genre 2 History 2.1 Early novels 2.2 Medieval period 1100–1500 2.2.1 Chivalric Romances 2.2.2 The novella 2.3 Renaissance period: 1500–1700 2.3.1 Chapbooks 2.3.2 Heroic romances 2.3.3 Satirical romances 2.3.4 Histories 2.3.5 Cervantes and the modern novel 2.4 18th century novels 2.4.1 Philosophical novel 2.4.2 The romance genre in the 18th century 2.4.3 The sentimental novel 2.4.4 The social context of the 18th century novel 22.214.171.124 Changing cultural status 126.96.36.199 The acceptance of novels as literature 2.5 19th century novels 2.5.1 Romanticism 2.5.2 The Victorian period: 1837–1901 2.6 The 20th century and later 2.6.1 Modernism and post-modernism 2.7 Genre fiction 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 6.1 Theories of the novel 6.2 Histories of the novel 7 External links Defining the genre Madame de Pompadour spending her afternoon with a book (François Boucher, 1756) A novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era usually makes use of a literary prose style. The development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, and the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English (and Spanish) word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" (as in French, Dutch, Russian, Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian "roman"; Finnish "romaani"; German "Roman"; Portuguese "romance" and Italian "romanzo") for extended narratives. A fictional narrative Fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would often include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would also invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social, political and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary prose While prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France, especially those by Chrétien de Troyes (late 12th century), and in Middle English (Geoffrey Chaucer's (c. 1343 – 1400) The Canterbury Tales). Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan (1824), Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin (1833), and Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh (1856), competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate (1986), composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Content: intimate experience Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", and "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. Length The novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, however, not possible.The requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life."