Qutb Shahi family
The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Golkonda Empire in southern India from 1518 to 1687. Qutb Shahi was a descendant of Qar Yusuf from the Turkmen Muslim tribe of Qara Qyunlu. After the fall of the Bahmani Empire, the "Qutb Shahi" family was formed in 1518 by Qali Qutb-ul-Mulk, who assumed the title of "Sultan". In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize the Mughal Empire. The empire ended in 1687 during the reign of the seventh Sultan Abul Hassan Qutb Shah when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb captured the Golkonda fort and captured the empire. The state-of-the-art state is spread over parts of the modern day states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The Golkonda Empire was in constant conflict with the Adil Shahis and the Nizam Shahis.
Qutb Shahi was a great patron of Shia culture, eventually adopting the Deccan regional culture (Telugu culture, language and the newly developed Deccani dialect of Urdu). Qutb Shahi was known for his secular rule. Qali Qutb-ul-Mulk Empire migrated from Iran to Delhi with his uncle, Allah Qali, some of his relatives and friends in the early 16th century. Later, he migrated south to Deccan, and served the Bahmani Sultan, Muhammad Shah. After the transfer of the Bahamani kingdom to the five Deccan sultans, he conquered Golconda. Shortly afterwards, he declared independence from Bahmani Sultani, took the title of Qutb Shah, and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in Golconda. Then in 1543 his son Jamshid took over the sultanate. Jamshed died of cancer in 1550.
Jamshed's youngest son ruled for a year, at which point Sharafat returned and appointed Ibrahim Qali as Sultan. During the reign of Muhammad Qali Qutb Shah, relations between Hindus and Muslims strengthened, until Hindus resumed their religious festivals such as Diwali and Holi. Some Hindus held important positions in the Qutb Shahi state, the most important example being the ministers of Madana and Akna.
With the construction of Golconda and Char Minar, Hyderabad later served as the capital of the empire, and both cities were adorned by the Qutb Shahi sultans. The empire ruled Golkonda for 171 years, until the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Deccan in 1687.
There was a strong cotton industry in the Deccan in the early seventeenth century.
Large quantities of cotton cloth were produced for domestic and export use. High quality plain and patterned fabric was made from muslin and calico.
Plain fabric was available in white or brown, bleach or color type. The cloth was exported to Persia and European countries.
The patterned fabric was made of prints with indigo for blue, red prints and desi for vegetable yellow. Exports of patterned fabrics were mainly to Java, Sumatra and other eastern countries.
The Qutb Shahi rulers were great architects, whose structure included four minarets, as well as patrons of learning.
The court of Qali Qutb-ul-Mulk became a center of Persian culture and literature.
Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580–1612) wrote poems in Southern Urdu, Persian and Telugu and left a large collection of poetry.
Later poets and writers, however, wrote in Urdu, while using words in Persian, Hindi and Telugu. By 1535, the Qutb Shahi were using Telugu for their revenue and court areas within the empire.
Initially, the Qutb Shahi rulers patronized Turkish culture, but eventually adopted the regional culture of the Deccan, symbolized by the Telugu language, and the newly developed Deccani idiom and Urdu became prominent.
Although Telugu was not their mother tongue, the rulers of Golkonda speak and write Telugu, and they patronized Telugu, hence they are exclusively called "Telugu Sultans". In 1543, fearing for his life, Prince Ibrahim Qali fled to the Vijayanagar court, where he enthusiastically patronized the Telugu language.
Upon his accession to the throne as Sultan in 1550, Ibrahim Quli was well acquainted with the aesthetics of Telugu.
The Qutb Shahi rulers were much more liberal than their other Muslim counterparts. During the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah in 1634 AD, the ancient Indian sex manual Koka Shastra was translated into Persian under the name Lazat-e-Nisa (Women's Tastes).
Qutb Shahi architecture was Indo-Islamic, an extreme of Indian and Persian architectural style. His style was very similar to other Deccan empires.
Some examples of Qutb Shahi Indo-Islamic architecture are Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Cemetery, Char Minar and Char Kaman, Mecca Mosque, Khairatabad Mosque, Hayat Bakhshi Mosque, Taramati Baradri and Tuli Mosque.
The Qutb Shahi kingdom was like other Deccan states, which was a very central state. The Sultan had full administrative, judicial and military powers. When scarcity was demanded, the post of regent was created by the king to carry on the administration.
The Peshwa (Prime Minister) was a high official of the empire. He was assisted by several ministers, including Mir Jamla (Minister of Finance), Kotwal (Commissioner of Police), and Treasurer (Treasurer).
In the Qutb Shahi kingdom, all Muslims were given an allowance from the treasury. Muslims of Persian descent were the most respected and paid, followed by other Indian Muslims. The Muslims of Persian descent became rich by lending interest to the Hindus at a very high interest rate (4-5%).
In the kingdom